Generally, the suggestion is that depression is a medical illness - some bio-neuro-chemical problem,
    without psychological causes (psychological: internal responses to external events and circumstances).

    However, all so-called "psychological problems" have some physical manifestations, and all physical
    illnesses have psychological components as well.
    * In fact, the chemical imbalances that occur during depression usually disappear when you complete
    therapy for depression, without taking any medications to correct the imbalance.
    * This suggests that the imbalance is the body's physical response to psychological depression, rather
    than the other way around - in most instances.
    * Some types of depression do seem to run in families, which suggests a biological vulnerability. This
    often seems to be the case with bipolar depression and, to a lesser degree, severe major depression.
    * Studies of families, in which members of each generation develop bipolar disorder, found that those
    with bipolar disorder have a somewhat different genetic makeup than those who are not diagnosed.
    * However, the reverse is not true. Not everybody with the genetic makeup that causes this
    vulnerability to bipolar disorder necessarily develops the disorder.
    * Additional factors, such as stress and other psychological factors, are involved in its onset as well.
    *Likewise, major depression also seems to occur, generation after generation, in some families, but
    not with a frequency that suggests clear biological causes. Additionally, it also occurs in people who
    have no family history of depression.

    So, while there may be some biological factors that contribute to depression, the indicators are that it
    is often a psychological/emotional reaction "disorder" - making the physio-biological aspect become a
    sort of chicken-egg situation (which came first?).

    PSYCHOLOGICAL
    A variety of psychological factors appear to play a role in vulnerability to these severe forms of
    depression. Most likely, psychological factors are completely responsible for other forms of mild and
    moderate depression, especially reactive depression.
    During treatment, Reactive depression is usually diagnosed as an adjustment disorder. People who
    have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism, or who are
    readily overwhelmed by stress are more prone to depression.

    SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT - Culture (Learned Behaviour)
    Social learning factors are significant in the development of depression, as well as other psycho-
    logical problems. People learn both adaptive and maladaptive ways of managing stress and respond-
    ing to life problems within their family, educational, social and work environments. These environ-
    mental factors influence psychological development, and the way people try to resolve problems when
    they occur.

    Social learning factors also explain why psychological problems appear to occur more often in family
    members, from generation to generation. If a child grows up in a pessimistic environment, in which
    discouragement is common and encouragement is rare, that child will develop a vulnerability to
    depression as well.

    A serious loss, chronic illness, relationship problems, work stress, family crisis, financial setback, or
    any unwelcome life change can also trigger a depressive episode, understandably.

    The immediate social and intimate environments can also be the cause of the reaction. Also, certain
    events & holidays, such as Christmas can bring on a temporary depression. So will bereavement
    and loss.

    ANGER
    Some forms of depression are actually anger that is "masked" or suppressed.

    Summary:
    Very often, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors are involved in the
    development of depressive disorders, as well as other psychological problems.

    As you can see, there are more non-physical "causes" listed here, than physical ones. Yet, commonly
    only the physical ones seem to be the ones focussed on by many therapists - who prescribe drugs that
    absolutely will do nothing for the non-physical causes (at best, they are symptom treatment only, in
    those instances. On the other hand, the physiological is not my field; mine deals with the "less explored
    and considered" causes. If that is what you are dealing with, I am available for assistance.
If you feel you are suffering from Depression - or Anxiety
- contact your healthcare provider, please.
Or perhaps I may of assistance.
Depression - Dysphoria: enigma
Major Depressive Uni-polar "Disorder": Causes & Treatment
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Dawn Cove Abbey
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"Roadside assistance" For Your Journey Through Life
- Dedicated to helping people return (and maintain) sanity and decency to life -
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From the eBook: "One! The Journey hOMe", by Klaas Tuinman M.A © 2007-2019
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Questions and comments welcomed.
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    That's the dilemma and enigma of Depression: the things that help the most being the things
Klaas Tuinman
Dawn Cove Abbey
Deerfield, (Yarmouth County) Nova Scotia, Canada - 2008
Revised Meaford, Ontario: 2019
    The reality is, as with many mental/emotional/spiritual reactions, that a variety of  factors may/